The President of the United States of Mexico is the chief executive of the government of the U.S.M. Under the Mexico City Constitution, the President was originally chosen by the Senate for a six-year term. However, following the ratification of President Arthur Conroy's Presidential Election Amendment in 1864, the President was elected by popular vote, with the Senate selecting the President only if no candidate won a majority. The President appoints a Cabinet to advise him and oversee various departments of the government.
The President has the power to veto legislation by the Mexican Congress, which can override his veto by a two-thirds vote. The President may call new Congressional elections at his own discretion, although none has ever done so. The President nominates judges to serve on the Mexico Tribunal, subject to ratification by the Senate. The President is commander-in-chief of the U.S.M.'s military forces.
The Mexican government has experienced two periods of autocratic rule. In the first, Constabulary Commandant Benito Hermión was named Chief of State by the Cabinet following the death of President George Vining in September 1881. Democratic rule was not restored until the 1902 Mexican elections in June 1902. In the second, Colonel Vincent Mercator led a military coup in January 1950. Despite a sham election in November 1965, democratic rule has not been restored in the U.S.M. as of 1971.
|President/Chief of State||Term||Party||State|
|1||Andrew Jackson||1821 - 1839||Continentalist Party||Jefferson|
|2||Miguel Huddleston||1839 - 1845||Liberty Party||Durango|
|3||Pedro Hermión||1845 - 1851||Continentalist Party||Jefferson|
|4||Hector Niles||1851 - 1857||Liberty Party||California|
|5||Arthur Conroy||1857 - 1869||Continentalist Party||Arizona|
|6||Omar Kinkaid||1869 - 1879||Continentalist Party||California|
|7||George Vining||1879 - 1881||Continentalist Party||Jefferson|
|Benito Hermión||1881 - 1901||none||Jefferson|
|Martin Cole||1901 - 1902||none||unknown|
|8||Anthony Flores||1902 - 1914||United Mexican Party||Durango|
|9||Victoriano Consalus||1914 - 1920||United Mexican Party||unknown|
|10||Emiliano Calles||1920 - 1926||Liberty Party||unknown|
|11||Pedro Fuentes||1926 - 1932||United Mexican Party||Chiapas|
|12||Alvin Silva||1932 - 1950||Liberty Party||Durango|
|Felix Garcia||1950 - 1954||none||unknown|
|Vincent Mercator||1954 - 1965||none||Jefferson|
|13||Raphael Dominguez||1965 -||Progressive Party||Mexico City|