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James Philipson of the Southern Confederation.

James Philipson was a member of the Southern Confederation Council in the Crisis Years. During debate on the Lloyd Bill in the spring of 1840, Philipson inserted a provision in the bill, little noticed at the time, mandating that slaves who were freed under the provisions of the bill would be bound to their plantations until their period of education had concluded. Sobel notes that in time the "free bondage" proposal would become the key to the program, providing the Southern Confederation with a new form of slavery which lasted for another two generations.


Sobel's source for Philipson's role in the Lloyd Bill is John Pritchard's William Lloyd: The Southern Emancipator (New York, 1956).

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