The Arab Revolt began on 5 August 1939 when a Bedouin leader named Abdul el Sallah lauched an uprising in Damascus. El Sallah had been obtaining arms from both the Germanic Confederation and Great Britain by promising to award each of them exclusive petroleum rights in Arabia after breaking away from the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Shah had been playing each nation against the other for the previous six years in order to obtain better terms, so both were prepared to back el Sallah. Within a week of launching his revolt, el Sallah had won the support of the Empire's Arabs.
El Sallah's success ended on 10 September at the Battle of el Khibir, when the Arab army was defeated by the Ottoman army. The Arabs fled to the Mediterranean coast, where el Sallah sought help from the Germans. Chancellor Karl Bruning responded to el Sallah's request by airlifting in 6000 elite German troops from September 19 - 21. This led the Shah to request assistance from the British, who responded by airlifting 3500 Royal marines to Arabia, and sending 20,000 more by sea to Constantinople. The German and British forces fought each other near Damascus on 30 September 1939, and the two nations traded declarations of war on October 1 and 2.
The Germans defeated the British and Ottoman armies in a series of battles in Arabia in late November, and on 25 December the Germans took the Victoria Canal and Alexandria. The Germans conquered the Ottoman Empire in 1940, and late in that year used the eastern area of the empire as the staging ground for an invasion of India. With the Ottomans defeated, Arabia broke away from the empire and became a German protectorate. Thirty years after the Arab Revolt, the Arabs were becoming restive under German rule, and an anti-German riot broke out in Jerusalem in 1969.